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四六级考试技巧

发布于:2017-10-09 14:11:32

 
 

1、词汇题表现形式

 
 

 

词汇题一般会明确地告诉考生出题点在哪里,不需要考生查找所考查内容。它可以考一个单词的含义,一个词组的意思,或者考一个句子的弦外之音。

 

 
 

2、词汇题解题方法

 
 


  词汇题是考生得分率较低的一类题,因为它需要考生从上下文中进行分析,推敲单词背后的意思。问单词或词组的意思,加强调上下文逻辑分析;有时用转折逻辑,但更多是利用并列逻辑,比如:  
原文:This is the Shadowland of hope, and anyone with a dream must learn to live there.  

 

60.“Shadowland”in the last sentence refers to____ . 

A) the wonderland one often dreams about  

B) the bright future that one is looking forward to  

C) the state of uncertainty before one's final goal is reached      

D) a world that exists only in one's imagination

 

此题解法有多种,其中可以利用并列关系来求解。首先,and后面的句子告诉我们“任何有梦想的人必须要学会在那里生活”,这暗含了“那里”不好的环境。再从and可知,两个分句的逻辑是一致的,据此Shadowland也应该是不利的环境,故选择C项。  

 

考句子的含义,查找答案的方向还得做一个细分:如果句子简单,一般在上下文中寻找答案;如果句子复杂,则更加倾向于在句子内部找答案。

 

词汇题注意点如果考简单单词,正确答案会与该单词的常用意思没有多大关系;如果考难词,感觉很难有分析的线索时,就把四个选项代到原文中,使得原文逻辑正确,意思同学的为正确答案;如果考句子的含义而导致分析完全没有思路时,不妨结合文章问题来分析,可以体现主题,或与主题的逻辑一致,一般就是答案。

 
 

3、阅读推理题答题技巧

 
 

 

●推理题表现形式推理题提问的方式有很多,比如suggest,imply,indicate,conclude,infer等。然而,suggest,imply和indicate这些单词提问,这个题目往往按照细节题的方法来处理即可,真正难把握的是conclude和infer 两个单词,这也是四级阅读推理题经常用来提问的方式。

 

●推理题解题方法推理题难度高,不在于推理难,而在于找答案没有方向。

 

比如,题目可能会问What can be inferred from the passage? What can be concluded from the passage? 如果我们对历年考题作一个仔细分析,可以发现conclude和infer还是有些答案查找的方向的。 

 

Conclude提问的题目,一般会涉及原文中结论性,观点性的语言,尤其是段落首末的句子。而infer提问的题目,如果题干信息比较多比较具体,一般可以当作细节题来处理,如果题干信息比较少,则考查原文观点结论的语言比较多,甚至考文章主题。

 

●推理题注意点  

很多考生在做推理题时,有一种思维误区,认为一个选项与原文相去越远,就越可能是正确答案,所以在找不到原文的依据时,就随心所欲地推导。其实,很多情况下,推理题的正确答案相差并不大,不应把这类题想得太难了。比如:

 

It can be inferred from the passage that____.  

A).killing foxes with poison is illegal  

B).limiting the fox population is unnecessary  

C).hunting foxes with dogs is considered cruel and violent  

D).fox-hunting often leads to confrontation between the poor and the rich  

 

正确答案选择C,而原文相关信息是:┄ because they think it is brutal(残酷的) ┄(原文已经给出brutal的含义)。可见两者相差并不大。

 

 
 

4、阅读主旨题答题技巧

 
 

 

●主旨题表现形式四级阅读中,主旨题主要可以表现为“What’s the best title for this passage”;“What is the main idea of the passage”;“The author’s purpose of writing this passage is to _____”。当然,这些提问方式可以有很多微小的变化,比如问“The passage is mainly about___”等等。

 

●主旨题解题方法从理论上来讲,主旨题是四级各类题型中要求最高的,因为它要求考生看完文章后,能对文章的大概框架作一个宏观把握,从而解答后面的题目。但是把握文章框架对很多考生来说,是不能做到的。庆幸的是,一般的四级文章,都可以找到文章主题句,或者是可以体现文章主题的句子或单词。  

 

文章主题一般在前两段出现,所以考生要比较关注前两段结论性的语言。四级阅读在全文首句出现文章主题的情况比较多见。另外,第一段转折性的语言,通常也能体现作者的观点偏好。

 

●主旨题注意点  

如果是考文章主题,那么正确答案一定具有概括性和结论性,细节性的选项肯定是错的。如2005年考题,

 

What is the author’s purpose in writing this article?  

A)To justify the study of the Boston University Medical Center.  

B)To stress the importance of maintaining proper weight.  

C)To support the statement made by York Onnen.  

D)To show the most effective way to lose weight. 

 

一看这四个选项,就可以发现A和C里面包含十分具体信息“the Boston University Medical Center”和“York Onnen”,是利用原文中的具体话题,某个细节内容而设计的干扰选项。  

 

值得注意的是很多干扰选项还以“以偏概全”的形式出现的,所以分析时要注意正确答案概括的全面性。而利用扩大主题的范围来设计干扰选项的方式,在四级中相对较少。为了说明主题,为了论证,作者会引用一些人讲的话,而这些观点也很可能被考到。

 
 

5、阅读细节题答题技巧

 
 

 

●细节题表现形式

这类题在四级考试中题量较大,占到60%——70%的题量,可以说是四级考试成败的关键这类题特点是题干的信息比较具体,考查文章中的重要细节。如2005年1月份考题:

 

“Free play has been introduced in some Japanese kindergartens in order to”,

 

本题通过“free play”,“some Japanese kindergartens”反映了原文考查对象,题干内容比较具体,属于细节分析。又如2005年6月份出现的题目:“What did the handball player do when he was not allowed a time out to change his gloves? ”本题handball player 是中心话题,when引导状语从句,这两部分明确指定了考查的细节内容,在原文中找答案十分方便。

 

●细节题解题方法

细节题考查信息查找能力和句子的理解能力。由于考试时间非常紧张,对于考生来说,做好细节题,首先是要在原文找到相关信息。正是由于这点,我们看文章需要目的。有同学先看文章再做题,导致做题时还得回去在文章中寻找相关内容,或者干脆凭着对文章的主观印象匆忙求解,结果是浪费时间或者错误较多。建议考生先看题干再看文章,这样就会有方向感,目的感。所以,细节题的重要做题方法就是:先看题干,再看原文,带着题干个别的特有信息或者带着题干的中心话题在原文定位。如“What did the handball player do when he was not allowed a time out to change his gloves? ”就可以结合handball player这个中心话题在原文找答案。

 

四级细节题干有时会有比较明显的信息,如时间数字,专有名词,中心名词。如:What was confirmed by the Boston University Medical Center’s study?题干中Boston University Medical Center这个专有名词可以让考生迅速找到考到的原文内容。如果用题干信息在原文找答案没有结果,可以根据题目的先后顺序来确定大概范围(除个别例外,四级细节题大体上还是按照出题的先后顺序找答案的)。

 

举例说明:

24.Why do pet dogs love performing tricks for their masters?  

25.When a dog has received effective obedience training, its owner____.  

 

做24题过程中,考生可以通过performing tricks 比较容易在原文倒数第二段最后一句话定位找答案;这时,可以大胆预测,25题考最后一段内容。

 

●细节题注意点  

考生做细节题时,要注意合理但不正确的选项。很多考生在做题时,忽视了题目与原文的联系,凭着合理性的主观猜想选择答案。结果很多考生感觉做得很好,但对答案时发现错了很多。另外,很多表示程度、范围、频率等的副词或形容词可能会导致选项错误,如2002年1月考题出现一个干扰选项是“keep in constant touch with the computer center”,其中的constant就是选项错误的关键。所以,细节题要求考生非常细心。

 

 
 

6、阅读态度题答题技巧

 
 

 

●态度题表现形式

态度题一般提问方式是:The author’s attitude towards ┄ is _____. 或者是What is the author’s attitude towards _______?

 

●态度题解题方法

从原则上来讲,态度题可以考查作者对一个中心话题的看法,也可以考查作者对某一具体细节的态度,但是从历年考法来看,四级阅读更加注重考查文章中心话题。所以,态度题经常可以通过文章主题来判断作者的态度。如:

 

原文首句:It’s no secret that many children would be healthier and happier with adoptive parents than with the parents that nature dealt them.

 

题目:The author’s attitude towards the judge’s ruling could be described as______.

A) doubtful   B) critical   C) cautious   D) supportive 

 

全文首句可以体现文章讨论的中心话题,它明确道出了作者的观点:有时小孩与养父母在一起比与亲生父母在一起更好。而原文中judge’s ruling的结果就是把小孩判给了养父,所以作者一定会持支持态度,故选D。

 

●态度题注意点考生应该熟练掌握在态度题中经常出现的单词,如positive, negative, optimistic, pessimistic, approving, concerned, objective, compromise等。另外,从以前四级考试的情况来看,作者的态度一般是或褒或贬,或乐观或担忧,中性评价为正确答案的较少。

 如果考生来不及看文章,万般无奈下凭这些规律可以选中不少正确选项。

 

(一)答案项中有绝对语气词的一般不是正确答案项。
  这些语气词有: must, always, never, the most, all, only, have to, any, no, very,completely, none, hardly等。


  例(1) One of the great changes brought about by the knowledge society is that _____ .
  A. the difference between the employee and the employer has become insignificant.
  B. people‘s traditional concepts about work no longer hold true.
  C. most people have to take part-time jobs.
  D. people have to change their jobs from time to time.


  (分析:四个选项中,C、D两项中都含有“have to”,语气太绝对化,一般被排除。考生在剩下两项中进行选择,就大大降低了难度。)


  例(2)The main idea of this passage is that _____ .
  A. better use of green space facilities should be made so as to improve the quality of our life.
  B. attention must be directed to the improvement of recreative possibilities.
  C. the urban environment is providing more recreation activities than it did many years ago.
  D. priority must be given to the development of obligatory activities.


  (分析:B、D两项中均有must be,语气太绝对化,故一般被排除。考生结合短文内容在剩下两项中进行选择,命中率就极高了。)

(二)选项中含有不十分肯定的语气词一般是正确答案项。
  这些语气词有: can, could, may, should, usually, might, most(大多数),more or less, relatively, be likely to, possible, whether or, not necessarily 等。


  例(1)It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes .  

A. Americans are more ambitious than people in other countries
  B. in many countries success often depends on one‘s social status
  C. American businesses are more democratic than those in other countries
  D. businesses in other countries are not as competitive as those in America


  (分析:选项B中often 一词,语气委婉,不十分肯定,故为答案。而其它三项中所表达出的语气都明显绝对化。)


  例(2) According to the passage the problems of college education partly arise from the fact that ——。
  A. society can‘t provide enough jobs for properly trained college graduates
  B. high school graduates do not fit the pattern of college education?
  C. too many students have to earn their own living
  D. college administrators encourage students to drop out


  (分析:答案项C中有have to, 语气太绝对化,故被排除。而A项中can‘t 的语气则不十分绝对化,故为答案。)


(三)选项中照抄原文的一般不是答案项,而同义替换的一般是选项。


  例(1)According to Dr. David, Americans .
  A. are ideally vigorous even under the pressure of life
  B. often neglect the unsequences of sleep deficit
  C. do not know how to relax themselves properly
  D. can get by on 6.5 hours of sleep


  (分析:答案项中A、D两项基本上是原文中句子的原现,故被排除。B项中有often 一词,语气委婉,不十肯定,故为答案。)


  例(2)According to the passage, which of the following statements is true?
  A. Future man will be made of silicon instead of flesh and blood
  B. Someday it will be difficult to tell a computer from a man
  C. The reasoning power of computers has already surpassed that of man
  D. Future intelligent life may not necessarily be made of organic matter.


  (分析:A项句子基本上是原文词句,C项中有already一词,语气太绝对化,故A、C两项被排除。剩下B、D两项,而D项中有不十分肯定语气词may not,故选D.)

(四)较全面、有针对性地表达文章中心思想的,选项一般是答案项。


  例(1)which of the following best summarizes the main idea of the passage? 
  A. Musical uments developed through the years will sooner or later be replaced by computers.
  B. Music can‘t be passed on to future generations unless it’s recorded.
  C. Folk songs can‘t be spread for unless they are printed on music sheet.
  D. the development of music culture is highly dependent on its material aspect.


  (分析:根据短文内容可以看出,A、B、C三项的内容都只是从某一个方面阐述了一种观点,而D项句子所表达的意思就较全面,高度囊括了全篇短文的主旨。)


  例(2)The first paragraph is mainly about . 
  A. the teenagers‘ criticism of their parents
  B. misunderstandings between teenagers and their parents
  C. the dominance of the parents over their children
  D. the teenagers‘ ability to deal with crisis


  (分析:短文意思是讲年青人有时批评、责备其父母,认为父母对他们间误解负大部分责任是自然的事。而B项意思是年青人和父母间的误解;C项意思是父母对他们孩子的统治;D项指年轻人处理危机的能力。根据短文内容,可以明确看出,B、C、D三项内容都是从三个方面来论述短文观点的,而A项则较全面地、有针对性地表达了文章的中心意思,故为答案。)


(五)选项中表达意义较具体的、肤浅的(字面意思)一般不是答案项,而概括性的、抽象的、含义深刻的是答案项。


  例(1)The population in the 21st century, according to the writer .
  A. will be smaller than a few years ago
  B. will not be as small as people expect
  C. will prove to be a threat to the world
  D. will not constitute as serious a problem as expected


  (分析:选项A、B中都有small一词,该词在文中出现过,因而总觉肤浅,是字面之意。C项明显与文章不符,而D项表达的意义比small要深刻得多。)


  例(2)From the passage it can be seen that employee ship helps one . 

A.to be more successful in his career
  B. to solve technical problems
  C. to be more specialized in his field
  D. to develop his professional skill


  (分析:题意是“从文中看出员工素质有助于人们 ……。” B项题即“解决技术问题”;C项意即“深化专业”;D项“发展职业技能”。这三项表达的意思都比较具体,而A项则概括地有深度,包括了B、C、D三项内容。) 

 

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